Adapted from Bedsider.org
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There are so many birth control methods. If you aren't happy with what you're currently using, check out info on other methods and find one that works for you!
Learn more about each method below: IUD, Implant, the Shot, the Patch, the Pill, the Ring, Emergency Contraception, External Condom, Internal Condom, Diaphragm, Sponge, Spermicide, Cervical Cap, Fertility Awareness, Withdrawal, "Not Right Now," Sterilization
The IUD is a little, t-shaped piece of plastic that is placed in the uterus to mess with the way sperm can move and prevent them from fertilizing an egg. Sounds odd, but it works like a charm. IUDs offer years of protection—between three and twelve, depending on the type someone gets. And if someone wants to get pregnant, they can have the IUD removed at any time. In the U.S. there are five IUDs: Mirena, ParaGard, Skyla, Liletta, and Kyleena.
Here's the Breakdown: Invisible and easy. Someone can choose hormonal (Mirena, Skyla, Liletta, and Kyleena) or non-hormonal (ParaGard).
Effectiveness: It's one of the most effective methods!
Side Effects: With ParaGard someone might have increased blood flow and cramping.
Effort: It's inserted once and lasts for years.
Ease to Get: An appointment with a provider is needed for insertion.
Cost: Could range from $0-$932 Read more about the cost of an IUD.
The implant (Nexplanon is the brand name; previously Implanon) is a teeny-tiny rod that's inserted under the skin of the upper arm. It's so small, in fact, most people can't see it once it's inserted—which means it can be a little secret, if they're so inclined. The implant releases progestin, a hormone that keeps the ovaries from releasing eggs and thickens the cervical mucus—which helps block sperm from getting to the egg in the first place. It prevents pregnancy for up to four years. Not too shabby.
Here's the Breakdown: Invisible to the world but not to the user. It's easy, incredibly effective, long lasting, and reversible.
Effectiveness: The implant is among the most effective methods.
Side Effects: Irregular bleeding is the most common side effect of the implant.
Effort: Quick insertion and you're set for 4 years.
Ease to Get: An appointment with a provider is needed for insertion.
Cost: Anywhere from $0-$848 Read more about the cost of an implant.
The shot is just what it sounds like—a shot that keeps someone from getting pregnant. Once you get it, birth control is covered for three full months—there’s nothing else that needs to be done. Some people call the shot “Depo,” short for Depo-Provera. (Pronounced like Johnny Depp-oh.) The shot contains progestin, a hormone that prevents the ovaries from releasing eggs. It also thickens cervical mucus, which helps block sperm from getting to the egg in the first place. Worth considering even if someone is afraid of needles... Because what's a little prick compared to a pregnancy?
Here's the breakdown: Long-lasting, private, and good hormonal option for those who can't take estrogen.
Effectiveness: The shot is super effective—as long as it is taken on time.
Side Effects: Most common are irregular bleeding and increased appetite, leading to weight gain.
Effort: Someone needs to go for a shot every 3 months.
Ease to Get: To the doctor or clinic for each shot.
Cost: From $0-$120, but it all depends. Read more about the cost of the shot.
The patch is a thin, beige piece of plastic that looks like a square Band-Aid. It's a little less than two inches across, and comes in one—and only one—color. (Beige.) The user sticks the patch on their skin and it gives off hormones that prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs. The hormones also thicken cervical mucus, which helps to block sperm from getting to the egg in the first place. The brand name Ortho Evra isn't being produced anymore so to use the patch, ask for the generic, Xulane.
Here's the breakdown: Easy to use and works like the pill, but someone only has to worry about it once a week.
Effectiveness: The patch is pretty effective the way most people use it.
Side Effects: Nausea, irregular bleeding, sore boobs are most common, but usually temporary.
Effort: Patch change required once a week.
Ease to Get: A prescription from a doctor or clinic.
Cost: Could be as low as $0 a month or as high as $44. Read more about the cost of the patch.
"The Pill" is a pill. (How's that for stating the obvious?) Some people call it "oral contraception." It's taken once daily, at the same time every day. There are lots of different kinds of pills on the market, and new ones come out all the time. Most work by releasing hormones that keep the ovaries from releasing eggs. The hormones also thicken cervical mucus, which helps to block sperm from getting to the egg in the first place.
Here's the breakdown: Been around for 50 years, easy to swallow, can have positive side effects.
Effectiveness: The pill's really effective when taken perfectly, but most don't take it perfectly.
Side Effects: Most common are sore breasts, nausea, spotting, and decreased sex drive.
Effort: Every. Single. Day.
Ease to Get: You have to get a prescription.
Cost: As low as $0 or as high as $113 a month. Read more about the cost of the pill.
The ring (brand name: NuvaRing) is a small, bendable ring that is inserted into the vagina by the user. (It kind of looks like one of those jelly bracelets from the 80s, but it feels a tiny bit stiffer.) It is left in place for three weeks at a time, then taken out for the fourth week. The ring works by giving off hormones that prevent the ovaries from releasing eggs. The hormones also thicken cervical mucus, which helps to block sperm from getting to the egg in the first place.
Here's the breakdown: Easy to insert, works like the pill, keeps someone protected for a month at a time.
Effectiveness: The ring's pretty effective the way most people use it.
Side Effects: Most common—yet temporary—effects are irregular bleeding, sore boobs, nausea.
Effort: Ring in. Wait 3 weeks. Ring out. Wait 1 week. Repeat.
Ease to Get: Need to visit a health care provider for a prescription.
Cost: Anywhere from $0-$75 a month. Read more about the cost of the ring.
Emergency Contraception (EC) can stop a pregnancy before it starts. (That means the EC pills are not the same as the abortion pill.) There are four types of EC to choose from and they all work up to 5 days (or 120 hours) after unprotected sex. But use it sooner rather than later to reduce the possibility of getting pregnant. Read more: 5 myths about the emergency contraceptive pill, busted.
Here's the breakdown: EC provides the possibility of prevention after the fact.
Effectiveness: EC pills are somewhat effective (not as good as lots of methods you can use before or during sex).
Side Effects: EC pills can cause upset stomach and vomiting.
Effort: The number and dose of pills depends on the brand.
Ease to Get: ella and Yuzpe require a prescription; ParaGard must be inserted by provider; Plan B One-Step is available without a prescription; generic levonorgestrel-based pills are available without prescription. Search for EC.
Cost: Anywhere from $0-$932. Read more about the cost of emergency contraception.
Rubber. Jimmy-hat. Love sock. Wrapper. However you say it, condoms are one of the most popular forms of birth control out there. They slip over the penis to prevent pregnancy and lower the risk of STIs by keeping sperm inside the condom and out of the vagina. (There are also internal condoms that go inside the vagina.) Condoms come in hundreds of shapes and sizes, with lube and without.
Here's the breakdown: They protect against STIs, don't require a prescription, and are inexpensive.
Effectiveness: The condom is so-so the way people typically use them—better when used perfectly.
Side Effects: Usually none. Unless you have a latex allergy.
Effort: You have to use one EVERY time.
Ease to Get: Drug stores, clinics, supermarkets, and even some bars and clubs.
Cost: About $1 per condom or free at lots of clinics and bars. Read more about the cost of an external condom.
An internal (a.k.a. female) condom is a pouch you insert into the vagina. It's not the prettiest thing in the world (it looks a bit like a floppy, clear elephant trunk) but it is a method that gives the user lots of control. Internal condoms work the same way that condoms do, except that it is worn on the inside instead of sticking it on a penis or toy. They keep sperm inside the condom and out of the vagina.
Here's the breakdown: Give women more control and are good for those with latex allergies.
Effectiveness: So-so the way people typically use them—better when used perfectly; more effective with spermicide.
Side Effects: Usually none, but could cause a little irritation to your or your partner's parts.
Effort: You have to use one EVERY time.
Ease to Get: Can find them at clinics and online, and in some drugstores and supermarkets.
Cost: Depending on where you get them, $0-$5 a piece. Read more about the cost of an internal condom.
A diaphragm is a shallow, dome-shaped cup made of silicone. (Honestly, it looks like Meg Griffin's hat on The Family Guy. Except it's only a few inches in diameter.) It is inserted into the vagina. Then it covers the cervix and keeps sperm out of your uterus. One super important thing to remember: for a diaphragm to work effectively, it must be used with spermicide.
Here's the breakdown: Effective immediately, can be put in hours before sex, doesn't affect hormones.
Effectiveness: The diaphragm's fairly effective—better with spermicide.
Side Effects: No problems for most, but irritation or urinary tract infections are possible.
Effort: Have to put it in place every time you have sex, but can leave it in for up to 24 hours.
Ease to Get: See a health care provider to get a prescription. For the Milex diaphragm you'll need a fitting; the Caya diaphragm is one-size-fits-all.
Cost: Anywhere from $0-$90. Read more about the cost of a diaphragm.
The sponge is a round piece of white plastic foam with a little dimple on one side and a nylon loop across the top that looks like shoelace material. It's pretty small—just two inches across—it is inserted all the way up into the vagina before sex before you have sex. The sponge works in two ways: It blocks the cervix to keep sperm from getting into your uterus, and it continuously releases spermicide. Think of it like a bouncer at the nightclub door to the uterus.
Here's the breakdown: No hormones, no prescription, and can be inserted up to 24 hours before sex.
Effectiveness: The sponge isn't the most effective method—especially if someone already had a kid.
Side Effects: Usually no side effects, but you could experience some irritation.
Effort: Have to put it in every time you have sex (but could be done hours ahead of time).
Ease to Get: Available online and in stores.
Cost: From $0—$15 for 3 sponges. Read more about the cost of a sponge.
“Spermicides" describe a bunch of different creams, films, foams, gels, and suppositories that contain chemicals that stop sperm from moving. It is inserted deep in the vagina, so it also keeps sperm from getting through the cervix and into the uterus.
Here's the breakdown: Easy to find, no hormones, and no prescription needed.
Effectiveness: Spermicide's not so great on its own. Much better with another barrier method.
Side Effects: Most don't have any problems, but you or your partner could have some irritation.
Effort: Have to apply it every time you have sex.
Ease to Get: Get it at a store or online.
Cost: Totally depends, but will likely cost from $0 to $1.50 per time you have sex. Read more about the cost of spermicide.
A cervical cap is a silicone cup you insert into the vagina to cover the cervix and keep sperm out of the uterus. The "cap" part of the name is pretty dead on—the thing looks like a little rubber sailor's hat, maybe an inch and a half wide and one inch high. There's only one brand of cervical cap available in the U.S. today, and it's jauntily named the FemCap. One super important thing to remember: for a cervical cap to work effectively, it must be used with spermicide.
Here's the breakdown: Immediately effective, no hormones, can be inserted up to 6 hours before sex.
Effectiveness: The cervical cap's fairly effective—better with spermicide.
Side Effects: Usually no side effects. Some females might experience irritation or discomfort.
Effort: Has to be in place every time you have sex.
Ease to Get: Get fitted for right size by doc or clinic and then pick it up with a prescription.
Cost: Pay once for fitting ($0-$200) and cap ($0-$89); ongoing cost for spermicide. Read more about the cost of a cervical cap.
Fertility awareness-based methods—or natural family planning—are all about tracking the menstrual cycle to determine the days that someone can get pregnant. The tricky part is actually knowing when those days are. To do that, they need to pay very close attention to their body and its patterns. Here we list all the different ways you can monitor day-to-day fertility.
Here's the breakdown: Fertility awareness-based methods are inexpensive and hormone-free.
Effectiveness: Fertility awareness methods aren't among the most effective—better when practiced perfectly.
Side Effects: None.
Effort: Daily tracking is required to REALLY use fertility awareness-based methods correctly.
Ease to Get: Supplies online or from clinics. Take classes from some clinics or churches.
Cost: Thermometers for less than $10. CycleBeads for $10—$25. Free or low-cost classes. Read more about costs and how to count.
The withdrawal method is the oldest form of birth control on the planet. There's not much to explain, really. A male pulls out before he ejaculates. End of story. Some people call withdrawal the “pull out method.” Or you may hear people call it “coitus interruptus.” The key thing to remember is this: You've got to do it right—every single time—for withdrawal to be effective. And how many males do you know with that kind of total control?
Here's the breakdown: Withdrawal doesn't cost a dime or require a visit to the doctor.
Effectiveness: Somewhat effective, but depends on the male always pulling out in time. Always.
Side Effects: No hormones, no devices, no side effects.
Effort: Has to happen every single time you have sex.
Ease to Get: Nothing to get—except your partner's cooperation.
Cost: Withdrawal is a method that is totally free, but risky. While you won’t have to spend anything to use it, you have to do it correctly every single time for it to work.
"Not Right Now"
Saying "Not right now” is our way of saying “no vaginal or anal sex.” It’s a great method as far as effectiveness is concerned—if you use it 100% of the time, you’re guaranteed to not get pregnant. And if you’re avoiding sexual activity altogether, you’ll be safe from STIs too. But it does involve a whole lot of self-control.
Here's the breakdown: If you don't have vaginal sex, you won't get pregnant.
Effectiveness: "Not right now" is 100% effective if you really don't have sex.
Side Effects: None.
Effort: You have to have a lot of control.
Ease to Get: There's nothing to get.
Cost: Free! Unless you count the cost of batteries :)
Sterilization is a procedure that closes or blocks the fallopian tubes so someone can't get pregnant. (Tubes are where eggs and sperm meet. If they can't meet, they can't hook up.) Males also have a sterilization option—a vasectomy blocks the tubes that carry sperm. It's even safer and more effective than female sterilization. Talk to a health care provider to learn more and be sure to ask about state and federal requirements, like age restrictions and waiting periods.
Here's the breakdown: A permanent solution for those who are sure they don't want a future pregnancy.
Effectiveness: Very effective.
Side Effects: Possible pain or discomfort right after procedure.
Effort: Once and you're done.
Ease to Get: You need to see a doctor.
Cost: Could range from $0-$5000 for the procedure. Read more about the cost of the steralization procedure.